Hindustani Classical Music

Hindustani classical music is the Hindustani or North Indian style of Indian classical music found throughout the northern Indian subcontinent. The style is sometimes called North Indian Classical Music or Shāstriya Sangeet.

The rhythmic organization is based on rhythmic patterns called tala. The melodic foundations are called ragas.

One possible classification of ragas is into "melodic modes" or "parent scales", known as thaats, under which most ragas can be classified based on the notes they use.


Thaats may consist of up to seven scale degrees, or swara. Hindustani musicians name these pitches using a system called Sargam,

•    Sa (Shadaj) = Do
•    Re (Rishab) = Re
•    Ga (Gandhar) = Mi
•    Ma (Madhyam) = Fa
•    Pa (Pancham) = So
•    Dha (Dhaivat) = La
•    Ni (Nishad) = Ti
•    Sa (Shadaj) = Do

Both systems repeat at the octave. The difference between sargam and solfege is that re, ga, ma, dha, and ni can refer to either "Natural" (shuddha) or altered "Flat" (komal) or "Sharp" (tivra) versions of their respective scale degrees. As with movable do solfege, the notes are heard relative to an arbitrary tonic that varies from performance to performance, rather than to fixed frequencies, as on a xylophone. The fine intonational differences between different instances of the same swara are called srutis.